Smart Nerd Dinner

I think there is general agreement that the age of the ASP.NET wire-framing post-back web dev is over.  If you are going to writing web applications in 2015 in the .NET stack, you have to be able to use java script and associated javascript frameworks like Angular.  Similarly, the full-stack developer needs to have a much deeper understanding of the data that is passing in and and out of their application.  With the rise of analytics in an application, the developer needs different tools and approaches to their application.  Just as you need to know javascript if you are going to be in the browser, you need to know F# if you are going to be building industrial-grade  domain and  data layers.

I decided to refactor an existing ASP.NET postback website to see how hard it would be to introduce F# to the project and apply some basic statistics to make the site smarter.  It was pretty easy and the payoffs were quite large.

If you are not familiar, nerd Dinner is the cannonal example of a MVC application that was created to show Microsoft web devs how to create a website using the .NET stack.  The original project was put into a book with the Mount Rushmore of MSFT uber-devs

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The project was so successful that it actually was launched into a real website

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and you can find the code on Codeplex here

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When you download the source code from the repository, you will notice a couple of things:

1) It is not a very big project – with only 1100 lines of code

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2) There are 191 FxCop violations

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3) It does compile coming out of source, but some of the unit tests fail

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4) There is pretty low code coverage (21%)

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Focusing on the code coverage issue, it makes sense that there is not much code coverage because there is not much code that can be covered.  There is maybe 15 lines of “business logic” if the term business logic is expanded to include input validation.  This is an example

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Also, there is maybe ten lines of code that do some basic filtering

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So step one in the quest to refactor nerd dinner to be a bit smarter was to rename the projects.  Since MVC is a UI framework, it made sense to call it that.  I then changed the namespaces to reflect the new structure

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The next  step was to take the domain classes out of the UI and put them into the application.  First, I created another project

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I then took all of the interfaces that was in the UI and placed them into the application

1 namespace NerdDinner.Models 2 3 open System 4 open System.Linq 5 open System.Linq.Expressions 6 7 type IRepository<'T> = 8 abstract All : IQueryable<'T> 9 abstract AllIncluding 10 : [<ParamArray>] includeProperties:Expression<Func<'T, obj>>[] -> IQueryable<'T> 11 abstract member Find: int -> 'T 12 abstract member InsertOrUpdate: 'T -> unit 13 abstract member Delete: int -> unit 14 abstract member SubmitChanges: unit -> unit 15 16 type IDinnerRepository = 17 inherit IRepository<Dinner> 18 abstract member FindByLocation: float*float -> IQueryable<Dinner> 19 abstract FindUpcomingDinners : unit -> IQueryable<Dinner> 20 abstract FindDinnersByText : string -> IQueryable<Dinner> 21 abstract member DeleteRsvp: 'T -> unit

I then tooks all of the data structures/models and placed them in the application.

1 namespace NerdDinner.Models 2 3 open System 4 open System.Web.Mvc 5 open System.Collections.Generic 6 open System.ComponentModel.DataAnnotations 7 open System.ComponentModel.DataAnnotations.Schema 8 9 type public LocationDetail (latitude,longitude,title,address) = 10 let mutable latitude = latitude 11 let mutable longitude = longitude 12 let mutable title = title 13 let mutable address = address 14 15 member public this.Latitude 16 with get() = latitude 17 and set(value) = latitude <- value 18 19 member public this.Longitude 20 with get() = longitude 21 and set(value) = longitude <- value 22 23 member public this.Title 24 with get() = title 25 and set(value) = title <- value 26 27 member public this.Address 28 with get() = address 29 and set(value) = address <- value 30 31 type public RSVP () = 32 let mutable rsvpID = 0 33 let mutable dinnerID = 0 34 let mutable attendeeName = "" 35 let mutable attendeeNameId = "" 36 let mutable dinner = null 37 38 member public self.RsvpID 39 with get() = rsvpID 40 and set(value) = rsvpID <- value 41 42 member public self.DinnerID 43 with get() = dinnerID 44 and set(value) = dinnerID <- value 45 46 member public self.AttendeeName 47 with get() = attendeeName 48 and set(value) = attendeeName <- value 49 50 member public self.AttendeeNameId 51 with get() = attendeeNameId 52 and set(value) = attendeeNameId <- value 53 54 member public self.Dinner 55 with get() = dinner 56 and set(value) = dinner <- value 57 58 59 and public Dinner () = 60 let mutable dinnerID = 0 61 let mutable title = "" 62 let mutable eventDate = DateTime.MinValue 63 let mutable description = "" 64 let mutable hostedBy = "" 65 let mutable contactPhone = "" 66 let mutable address = "" 67 let mutable country = "" 68 let mutable latitude = 0. 69 let mutable longitude = 0. 70 let mutable hostedById = "" 71 let mutable rsvps = List<RSVP>() :> ICollection<RSVP> 72 73 [<HiddenInput(DisplayValue=false)>] 74 member public self.DinnerID 75 with get() = dinnerID 76 and set(value) = dinnerID <- value 77 78 [<Required(ErrorMessage="Title Is Required")>] 79 [<StringLength(50,ErrorMessage="Title may not be longer than 50 characters")>] 80 member public self.Title 81 with get() = title 82 and set(value) = title <- value 83 84 [<Required(ErrorMessage="EventDate Is Required")>] 85 [<Display(Name="Event Date")>] 86 member public self.EventDate 87 with get() = eventDate 88 and set(value) = eventDate <- value 89 90 [<Required(ErrorMessage="Description Is Required")>] 91 [<StringLength(256,ErrorMessage="Description may not be longer than 256 characters")>] 92 [<DataType(DataType.MultilineText)>] 93 member public self.Description 94 with get() = description 95 and set(value) = description <- value 96 97 [<StringLength(256,ErrorMessage="Hosted By may not be longer than 256 characters")>] 98 [<Display(Name="Hosted By")>] 99 member public self.HostedBy 100 with get() = hostedBy 101 and set(value) = hostedBy <- value 102 103 [<Required(ErrorMessage="Contact Phone Is Required")>] 104 [<StringLength(20,ErrorMessage="Contact Phone may not be longer than 20 characters")>] 105 [<Display(Name="Contact Phone")>] 106 member public self.ContactPhone 107 with get() = contactPhone 108 and set(value) = contactPhone <- value 109 110 [<Required(ErrorMessage="Address Is Required")>] 111 [<StringLength(20,ErrorMessage="Address may not be longer than 50 characters")>] 112 [<Display(Name="Address")>] 113 member public self.Address 114 with get() = address 115 and set(value) = address <- value 116 117 [<UIHint("CountryDropDown")>] 118 member public this.Country 119 with get() = country 120 and set(value) = country <- value 121 122 [<HiddenInput(DisplayValue=false)>] 123 member public self.Latitude 124 with get() = latitude 125 and set(value) = latitude <- value 126 127 [<HiddenInput(DisplayValue=false)>] 128 member public v.Longitude 129 with get() = longitude 130 and set(value) = longitude <- value 131 132 [<HiddenInput(DisplayValue=false)>] 133 member public self.HostedById 134 with get() = hostedById 135 and set(value) = hostedById <- value 136 137 member public self.RSVPs 138 with get() = rsvps 139 and set(value) = rsvps <- value 140 141 member public self.IsHostedBy (userName:string) = 142 System.String.Equals(hostedBy,userName,System.StringComparison.Ordinal) 143 144 member public self.IsUserRegistered(userName:string) = 145 rsvps |> Seq.exists(fun r -> r.AttendeeName = userName) 146 147 148 [<UIHint("Location Detail")>] 149 [<NotMapped()>] 150 member public self.Location 151 with get() = new LocationDetail(self.Latitude,self.Longitude,self.Title,self.Address) 152 and set(value:LocationDetail) = 153 let latitude = value.Latitude 154 let longitude = value.Longitude 155 let title = value.Title 156 let address = value.Address 157 ()

Unlike C# where there is a class per file, all of the related elements are placed into a the same location.  Also, notice that the absence of semi-colons, curly braces, and other distracting characters, and finally you can see that because were are in the .NET framework, all of the data annotations are the same.  Sure enough, pointing the MVC UI to the application and hitting run, the application just works.

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With the separation complete, it was time time to make our app much smarter.  The first thing that I thought of was when the person creates an account, they enter their first and last name

 

This seems like an excellent opportunity to add some user manipulation personalization to our site.  Going back to this analysis of names gives to newborns in the United States, if I know your first name, I have a pretty good chance of guessing your age/gender/and state of birth.  For example ‘Jose’ is probably a male born in his twenties in either Texas or California.  ‘James’ is probably a male in his 40s or 50s.

I added 6 pictures to the site for young,middleAged, and old males and females.

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I then modified the logonStatus partial view like so

1 @using NerdDinner.UI; 2 3 4 @if(Request.IsAuthenticated) { 5 <text>Welcome <b>@(((NerdIdentity)HttpContext.Current.User.Identity).FriendlyName)</b>! 6 [ @Html.ActionLink("Log Off", "LogOff", "Account") ]</text> 7 } 8 else { 9 @:[ @Html.ActionLink("Log On", "LogOn", new { controller = "Account", returnUrl = HttpContext.Current.Request.RawUrl }) ] 10 } 11 12 @if (Session["adUri"] != null) 13 { 14 <img alt="product placement" title="product placement" src="@Session["adUri"]" height="40" /> 15 }

Then, I created a session variable called adUri that the picture will reference in the Logon controller

1 public ActionResult LogOn(LogOnModel model, string returnUrl) 2 { 3 if (ModelState.IsValid) 4 { 5 if (ValidateLogOn(model.UserName, model.Password)) 6 { 7 // Make sure we have the username with the right capitalization 8 // since we do case sensitive checks for OpenID Claimed Identifiers later. 9 string userName = MembershipService.GetCanonicalUsername(model.UserName); 10 11 FormsAuth.SignIn(userName, model.RememberMe); 12 13 AdProvider adProvider = new AdProvider(); 14 String catagory = adProvider.GetCatagory(userName); 15 Session["adUri"] = "/Content/images/" + catagory + ".png"; 16

And finally, I added an implementation of the adProvider back in the application:

1 type AdProvider () = 2 member this.GetCatagory personName: string = 3 "middleAgedMale"

So running the app, we have a product placement for a Middle Aged Male

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So the last thing to do is to turn names into those categories.  I thought of a couple of different implementations: loading the entire census data set and searching it on demand,  I then thought about using Azure ML and making a API request each time, I then decided into just creating a lookup table that can be searched.  In any event, since I am using an interface, swapping out implementations is easy and since I am using F#, creating implementations is easy.

I went back to my script file that analyzed the baby names from the US census and created a new script.  I loaded the names into memory like before

1 #r "C:/Git/NerdChickenChicken/04_mvc3_Working/packages/FSharp.Data.2.0.14/lib/net40/FSharp.Data.dll" 2 3 open FSharp.Data 4 5 type censusDataContext = CsvProvider<"https://portalvhdspgzl51prtcpfj.blob.core.windows.net/censuschicken/AK.TXT"> 6 type stateCodeContext = CsvProvider<"https://portalvhdspgzl51prtcpfj.blob.core.windows.net/censuschicken/states.csv"> 7 8 let stateCodes = stateCodeContext.Load("https://portalvhdspgzl51prtcpfj.blob.core.windows.net/censuschicken/states.csv"); 9 10 let fetchStateData (stateCode:string)= 11 let uri = System.String.Format("https://portalvhdspgzl51prtcpfj.blob.core.windows.net/censuschicken/{0}.TXT",stateCode) 12 censusDataContext.Load(uri) 13 14 let usaData = stateCodes.Rows 15 |> Seq.collect(fun r -> fetchStateData(r.Abbreviation).Rows) 16 |> Seq.toArray 17

I then created a function that tells the probability of male

1 let genderSearch name = 2 let nameFilter = usaData 3 |> Seq.filter(fun r -> r.Mary = name) 4 |> Seq.groupBy(fun r -> r.F) 5 |> Seq.map(fun (n,a) -> n,a |> Seq.sumBy(fun (r) -> r.``14``)) 6 7 let nameSum = nameFilter |> Seq.sumBy(fun (n,c) -> c) 8 nameFilter 9 |> Seq.map(fun (n,c) -> n, c, float c/float nameSum) 10 |> Seq.filter(fun (g,c,p) -> g = "M") 11 |> Seq.map(fun (g,c,p) -> p) 12 |> Seq.head 13 14 genderSearch "James" 15

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I then created a function that calculated the year the last name was popular (using 1 standard deviation away)

1 let ageSearch name = 2 let nameFilter = usaData 3 |> Seq.filter(fun r -> r.Mary = name) 4 |> Seq.groupBy(fun r -> r.``1910``) 5 |> Seq.map(fun (n,a) -> n,a |> Seq.sumBy(fun (r) -> r.``14``)) 6 |> Seq.toArray 7 let nameSum = nameFilter |> Seq.sumBy(fun (n,c) -> c) 8 nameFilter 9 |> Seq.map(fun (n,c) -> n, c, float c/float nameSum) 10 |> Seq.toArray 11 12 let variance (source:float seq) = 13 let mean = Seq.average source 14 let deltas = Seq.map(fun x -> pown(x-mean) 2) source 15 Seq.average deltas 16 17 let standardDeviation(values:float seq) = 18 sqrt(variance(values)) 19 20 let standardDeviation' name = ageSearch name 21 |> Seq.map(fun (y,c,p) -> float c) 22 |> standardDeviation 23 24 let average name = ageSearch name 25 |> Seq.map(fun (y,c,p) -> float c) 26 |> Seq.average 27 28 let attachmentPoint name = (average name) + (standardDeviation' name) 29 30 let popularYears name = 31 let allYears = ageSearch name 32 let attachmentPoint' = attachmentPoint name 33 let filteredYears = allYears 34 |> Seq.filter(fun (y,c,p) -> float c > attachmentPoint') 35 |> Seq.sortBy(fun (y,c,p) -> y) 36 filteredYears 37 38 let lastPopularYear name = popularYears name |> Seq.last 39 let firstPopularYear name = popularYears name |> Seq.head 40 41 lastPopularYear "James" 42

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And then created a function that takes in the gender probability of being male and the last year the name was poular and assigns the name into a category:

1 let nameAssignment (malePercent, lastYearPopular) = 2 match malePercent > 0.75, malePercent < 0.75, lastYearPopular < 1945, lastYearPopular > 1980 with 3 | true, false, true, false -> "oldMale" 4 | true, false, false, false -> "middleAgedMale" 5 | true, false, false, true -> "youngMale" 6 | false, true, true, false -> "oldFemale" 7 | false, true, false, false -> "middleAgedFemale" 8 | false, true, false, true -> "youngFeMale" 9 | _,_,_,_ -> "unknown"

And then it was a matter of tying the functions together for each of the names in the master list:

1 let nameList = usaData 2 |> Seq.map(fun r -> r.Mary) 3 |> Seq.distinct 4 5 nameList 6 |> Seq.map(fun n -> n, genderSearch n) 7 |> Seq.map(fun (n,mp) -> n,mp, lastPopularYear n) 8 |> Seq.map(fun (n,mp,(y,c,p)) -> n, mp, y) 9 10 let nameList' = nameList 11 |> Seq.map(fun n -> n, genderSearch n) 12 |> Seq.map(fun (n,mp) -> n,mp, lastPopularYear n) 13 |> Seq.map(fun (n,mp,(y,c,p)) -> n, mp, y) 14 |> Seq.map(fun (n,mp,y) -> n,nameAssignment(mp,y)) 15

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And then write the list out to a file

1 open System.IO 2 let outFile = new StreamWriter(@"c:\data\nameList.csv") 3 4 nameList' |> Seq.iter(fun (n,c) -> outFile.WriteLine(sprintf "%s,%s" n c)) 5 outFile.Flush 6 outFile.Close()

Thanks to this stack overflow post for the file write (I wish the csv type provider had this ability).  With the file created, I can then use the file as a lookup for my name function back in the MVC app using a csv type provider

1 type nameMappingContext = CsvProvider<"C:/data/nameList.csv"> 2 3 type AdProvider () = 4 member this.GetCatagory personName: string = 5 let nameList = nameMappingContext.Load("C:/data/nameList.csv") 6 let foundName = nameList.Rows 7 |> Seq.filter(fun r -> r.Annie = personName) 8 |> Seq.map(fun r -> r.oldFemale) 9 |> Seq.toArray 10 if foundName.Length > 0 then 11 foundName.[0] 12 else 13 "middleAgedMale"

And now I have some (basic) personalization to Nerd Dinner. (Emma is a young female name so they get a picturer of a campground)

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So this a rather crude.  There is no provision for nicknames, case-sensitivity, etc.  But the site is along the way to becoming smarter…

The code can be found on github here.

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2 Responses to Smart Nerd Dinner

  1. Pingback: F# Weekly #39-41, 2014 | Sergey Tihon's Blog

  2. spikej says:

    Your Nerd Dinner github repo doesn’t have anything in there…?

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